"We know getting surgical masks, gloves, gowns and other protective equipment expeditiously to facilities across the country is imperative to protecting medical professionals and helping address the COVID-19 situation," said Delta Cargo vice president Shawn Cole in a written statement.
Delta hasn't operated regular cargo-only flights since 2009, when it had freighters from merger partner Northwest Airlines.
U.S. airlines halted passenger flights to China about two months ago, reducing air cargo between the two countries.
According to Cole, the Delta cargo flights add capacity for companies in China that restarted production and will get supplies to hospitals in the United States more quickly than ships. The airline said it will consider adding more flights, based on demand.
Delta also started on-demand cargo charters including Dublin-Atlanta and Los Angeles-Sydney flights.
Operating cargo flights allows Delta to make use of planes that were destined to be parked due to the sharp decline in passenger traffic.
The number of travelers passing through Transportation Security Administration checkpoints Sunday was down 92.8% from a year ago. Delta has parked unused planes along the fifth runway at Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport.