It certainly doesn’t represent everything you’ll need to know about your house, but it’s a good start.
We compiled our list with help from Chuck Kester of DC Home Inspection Services, Chris Havlik of BEI Maintenance & Repair, Kenneth S. Parker of H.L. Parker Electric, all of Akron, Ohio, Inspector Sierjie Lash of the Akron Fire Department, www.energystar.gov and the books “Tools” by Steve Dodds and “What’s a Homeowner to Do?” by Stephen Fanuka and Edward Lewine.
A tool kit: At the very least, you should own a curved-claw hammer, an adjustable wrench, needle-nose and standard pliers, slotted and Phillips screwdrivers in a couple of sizes and a pair of safety glasses.
An electric drill and a set of twist bits are also invaluable. Start with a corded drill, and save the purchase of a cordless model for later.
Find main water shut-off: When a water pipe leaks, you need to stop it right away. Otherwise the water can do extensive damage to your home and your bank account.
The main shutoff valve is found where the water supply enters the house, near the water meter. Look along the basement wall nearest the street. If you don’t have a basement, the shutoff is probably near the water heater but might also be under a sink.
The valve might be right next to an outdoor meter or inside the house. Some water meters have two shutoff valves, one on each side. If yours does, use the valve farthest from the street.
It’s a good idea to close and open the main shutoff valve once a year to prevent it from corroding and freezing in an open position.
Unclog a toilet: Everybody hates this chore, but sometimes you just have to take the plunge — or more accurately, take up the plunger.
Use a flange plunger, which has a cone extending from the bottom of the bell. It creates a better seal in a toilet than a cup plunger, so you can create the suction you need to clear the clog.
Put on rubber gloves, and if necessary, bail out the toilet bowl until it’s only half-full. (Yeah, we know. It’s gross.) Then position the plunger over the drain hole, and pump up and down a few times to let the air out and create a vacuum seal.
Once you feel the resistance that indicates you have a good seal, pump in rapid, short strokes four or five times without breaking the seal, and then pull out the plunger. If you’re lucky, the clog will clear. If you’re not, repeat.
For really tough clogs, you may need to use a toilet auger. It has a rubberized guard, so it won’t scratch the porcelain the way a regular plumber’s snake might.
Reset the electrical power: When the power goes out in part of your house, it means a circuit breaker has tripped or a fuse has blown, shutting off power to an electrical circuit. Usually the cause is an overload, meaning too many electrical devices are trying to draw power from one circuit.
Most homes have electrical panels with circuit breakers, switches that flip when there’s a problem with the circuit. Resetting it isn’t rocket science, but there’s a little trick to it: You have to turn the switch all the way off first before you can turn it back on.
It’s a good idea to turn off or unplug all the lights, appliances and other devices on the circuit before you reset the circuit breaker. When the power is back on, leave some things shut off, or plug them into a receptacle on a different circuit.
Sometimes a circuit shuts off because a ground fault interrupter has tripped on a receptacle. You can fix that by pushing the reset button on the receptacle. (GFI receptacles are usually found near water, such as in bathrooms and kitchens.)
If your house has older-style fuses, you fix a blown circuit by unscrewing the bad fuse in the electrical panel and screwing in a new one. However, it’s important to use a fuse with the right wire gauge to handle the circuit’s amperage.
If the breaker continues to trip or the fuse keeps blowing even though you’ve reduced the electrical load, you have a bigger problem and a potential safety hazard. Call an electrician.
Restart a garbage disposal: When disposal blades jam, a little force is required to dislodge them.
Most units have a hole on the underside of the disposal that an Allen wrench fits into. Check underneath the unit to see if the wrench is attached. If not, you can buy a set of Allen wrenches fairly cheaply.
Unplug the disposal, or turn off the power at the electrical panel. Then insert the wrench into the hole and work it back and forth until the blades are freed.
Remove the offending debris from the disposal. (You did turn the power off, right?) Press the reset button, which is usually on the bottom of the unit near the point where the electrical cord enters the disposal, and then turn the power back on.
Open garage door when your power is out: This one's easy. There should be a cord — probably red — hanging overhead from part of your garage door opener. When you pull the cord, it disengages the opener. You can then open the garage door by hand.
If the door is open when the opener fails, however, don’t try pulling the cord. If could cause the door to come crashing down.
Change your filters: Changing the filter in your furnace doesn't qualify as an emergency, but it could prevent one.
A dirty filter slows air flow, wastes energy by making your heating and cooling system work harder and lets dirt into the system, which wears out parts and could hasten a breakdown. If Murphy’s Law holds true, that breakdown will happen on a bitterly cold day — and that’s an emergency.
Most homeowners know they should change their filter regularly during heating season, but few realize they should keep right on doing it throughout the summer if they use a central air conditioner. The same filter works for both the heating and cooling systems.
Check it monthly and replace it when it looks dirty — or clean it, if it’s a reusable filter. You should change or clean the filter at least every three months.
If you have a humidifier, be sure to check that filter, too. Mold can build up on it and circulate throughout the house.
Do that in summer, when you’re not using the furnace and humidifier. Remove the humidifier filter and let it dry. If it’s clean, put it back in place. If not, replace it.