The Big Bang — the most comprehensive theory of the universe’s beginning — says the visible portion of the universe was smaller than an atom when, in a split second, it exploded, cooled and expanded faster than the speed of light.
The Planck space probe looked back at the afterglow of the Big Bang, and those results have now added about 80 million years to the universe’s age, putting it at 13.81 billion years old.
The probe, named for the German physicist Max Planck, the originator of quantum physics, also found that the cosmos is expanding a bit slower than originally thought, has a little less of that mysterious dark energy than astronomers had figured and has a tad more normal matter. But scientists say those are small changes in calculations about the universe, whose numbers are so massive.
Officials at NASA, which also was part of the experiment, said the Planck probe has provided a deeper understanding of the intricate history of the universe and its complex composition.
Krzysztof Gorski, a Planck scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab, said in a statement that the new results “are giving astronomers a treasure trove of spectacular data, and bringing forth a deeper understanding of the properties and history of the universe.”
The Planck space telescope, launched in 2009, has spent 15 1/2 months mapping the sky, examining so-called “light” fossils and sound echoes from the Big Bang by looking at background radiation in the cosmos. The spacecraft is expected to keep transmitting data until late 2013, when it runs out of cooling fluid.
Efstathiou marveled at how the Planck data was such “an extremely good match” to the theory of rapid inflation in the split-second after the Big Bang.
Inflation tries to explain some nagging problems left over from the Big Bang. Other space probes have shown that the geometry of the universe is predominantly flat, but the Big Bang said it should curve with time. Another problem was that opposite ends of space are so far apart that they could never have been near each other under the normal laws of physics, but early cosmic microwave background measurements show they must have been in contact.
So a few physicists more than 30 years ago came up with a theory to explain this: Inflation. That says the universe swelled tremendously, going “from subatomic size to something as large as the observable universe in a fraction of a second,” Greene said.
Efstathiou said the Planck results ultimately could give rise to entirely new fields of physics — and some unresolvable oddities in explaining the cosmos.
“You can get very, very strange answers to problems when you start thinking about what different observers might see in different universes,” he said.