Republicans and most election officials say touchscreens are familiar to voters and create a paper ballot that could be used to check the accuracy of electronically tabulated results. The legislation calls for audits of election results based on paper ballots.
"We can put our voters first in Georgia and bring us into the 21st century," said state Rep. Barry Fleming, a Republican from Harlem. "House Bill 316 will bring our state to the forefront of election technology. It builds on the successes of our old system and incorporates the best practices of the modern day."
Democrats opposed switching from one computer-based voting technology to another, citing cybersecurity experts who say paper ballots are the more trustworthy system.
They’re concerned that computer-printed ballots would encode votes in bar codes that are readable by machines but unverifiable by humans.
"Bar codes are changeable and hackable, and the voter could not be sure that what was on the summary was actually what was counted," said state Rep. Jasmine Clark, a Democrat from Tucker. "We must restore trust by showing Georgians … their vote is counted correctly and our elections are meaningfully audited."
Lawmakers quickly pushed the bill through the state House, where it cleared both a subcommittee and committee Thursday after seven hours of public comments earlier in the week. Then the measure passed the full House on Tuesday, seven legislative business days after it was introduced.
The state's elected leaders, including Republican Gov. Brian Kemp, want a new voting system in place before the 2020 presidential primary election. A panel Kemp appointed last year when he was secretary of state recommended a voting system using ballot-marking devices to replace the state's 17-year-old direct-recording electronic voting machines.
"The best solution for Georgia to make sure that we really captured voter intent was a ballot-marking device," Republican Secretary of State Brad Raffensperger said. "My goal as secretary of state is to make sure we get elections right."
If the voting machine legislation becomes law, Georgia election officials would seek competitive bids from voting system companies and then test ballot-marking devices during municipal elections this November.
Democrats said bubbled-in paper ballots would be safer and less expensive than ballot-marking devices, a point disputed by Raffensperger’s office.
State Rep. James Beverly, a Democrat from Macon, said the less technological solution would cost about $30 million, much less than the $150 million estimate for ballot-marking devices. Raffensperger's office emailed a press release Tuesday morning showing that paper ballot printing costs would exceed $164 million over 10 years, but that analysis excluded a comparison with ongoing costs of ballot-marking devices or potential savings from on-demand ballot printers.
“I like to call those ballot money devices,” Beverly said. “It’s a honey pot. It’s a way to incentivize vendors to push the money down the road.”
The bill also would make many other changes to Georgia’s elections.
It would give inactive voters more time and notification before their registrations are canceled, enroll Georgia in a 25-state collaboration to track voters who move or die, limit rejections of absentee ballots because of minor discrepancies, prohibit changes in polling places 60 days before an election, and lift restrictions on assistance to voters who need help casting their ballots.
Why it matters
A new statewide voting system would change the way Georgia’s 7 million registered voters cast their ballots. The system under consideration by state legislators would cost about $150 million. It would replace the state’s 17-year-old electronic voting machines with touchscreens that print paper ballots.
Two voting systems
Georgia lawmakers are considering a bill to replace the state’s 17-year-old electronic voting machines with a voting system that includes a paper ballot. The legislation, House Bill 316, calls for the state to use ballot-marking devices, but some voters prefer paper ballots bubbled in with a pen.
How it works: Ballot-marking devices are a voting system that combines technology and paper ballots. Voters tap a touchscreen to make their selections, similar to the state's current voting voting machines. The touchscreen is attached to a printer that spits out a paper ballot. Then voters could review their choices on the paper ballot before inserting it into an optical scanning machine for tabulation.
Security concerns: Cybersecurity experts and election integrity advocates oppose ballot-marking devices. They say ballot-marking devices could be hacked to alter election results. Unlike ballots filled out by hand, ballot-marking devices print text of voters' choices and, in some cases, encode those choices into bar codes for machine tabulation. Critics of ballot-marking devices say voters wouldn't be able to know if the bar codes matched their printed choices.
Tech support: Georgia election officials support ballot-marking devices, saying the touchscreens are easy to use and create a paper ballot that could be used to check election results. Backers of ballot-marking devices say printed ballots avoid problems of hand-marked paper ballots, which could be invalidated by stray pen marks or human errors. Ballot-marking devices also include accessibility options to accommodate disabled voters, such as adjustable type size.