Supporters said the taxes are already owed and that the new law will level the competition for brick-and-mortar stores, which have charged sales taxes for their products.
A report in June by a group called the Faith, Justice and Truth Project said the state is losing nearly $750 million a year in sales taxes not collected from such online "marketplace facilitators" of sales.
The state's estimate on the measure is closer to $150 million a year in state and local collections. More than 30 states have similar laws.
Uber lobbyists are expected to push a separate bill that would charge customers a per-ride fee, rather than the sales tax.
The state has seen sluggish tax collections over the past year and while lawmakers are looking for ways to raise more money, they are also having to consider Kemp's proposals to cut 4% in spending this year and 6% next year.