The cap is the first-ever limit on debit card fees. Before it took effect in October 2011, banks had negotiated such fees with merchants. A big chain like Starbucks would likely get a better rate than a local coffee shop because it handles more customers. The fees were typically based on a percentage of the purchase price.
The Fed rule was called for by the 2010 financial overhaul law, which was enacted in response to the 2008 crisis. But Leon said in his ruling that the Fed disregarded Congress’s intent in passing the law by “inappropriately inflating all debit-card transaction fees by billions of dollars and failing to provide merchants with multiple unaffiliated networks for each debit-card transaction.”
The retailers’ lawsuit maintained that the cap is an “unreasonable interpretation” that exceeds the authority given to the Fed by the 2010 law. It also asserted that the Fed wrongly interpreted a provision of the law that requires that merchants have a choice of which bank network handles their transactions.
Leon agreed with the retailers’ complaint that the Fed had deviated from the law’s intent by factoring banks’ expenses into the cap that the law didn’t allow. He noted in the ruling that the Fed changed its earlier view that the only costs that should be considered were those involved in the authorization, clearing and settlement of a transaction. Instead, the ruling said, the Fed added costs such as losses from fraud that were outside the scope of the law.
Including costs for losses from fraud was for the Fed “a blatant act of policymaking that runs counter to Congress’s will,” Leon wrote.
The Fed in June 2011 formally set the cap for what banks can charge merchants at 21 cents for each debit-card transaction, plus an additional 0.05 percent of the purchase price to cover the cost of fraud protection.
The National Retail Federation, one of the parties that brought the suit, said the Fed had “grossly misapplied” the law and failed to follow Congress’s call to set “reasonable” standards for fees that are in proportion to banks’ costs for transactions. “As a result, small-ticket transactions, such as those imposed on convenience stores and restaurants, skyrocketed under the misapplied law,” the group’s senior vice president and general Counsel, Mallory Duncan, said in a statement.
Banks had lobbied hard against the cap, saying the lower fees wouldn’t cover the cost of handling transactions, maintaining their networks and preventing fraud. Attempts by some big banks to compensate by charging consumers monthly fees for using debit cards sparked a nationwide furor in late 2011, leading the banks to drop their plans.