After the vote, Senators of both parties exchanged bitter jabs on the floor.
"All they have to do is present a clean funding bill for Homeland Security," said Sen. Clare McCaskill (D-MO), who accused Republicans of "trying to play a political trick" by including the immigration language in the DHS funding bill.
"Why in the world is it that Senate Democrats won't even allow this particular legislation to be debated?" said Sen. John Cornyn (R-TX).
Boehner jabs at conservative critics
Several hours before the Senate vote, Speaker John Boehner tweaked some of his more conservative critics in the Senate, reminding Republican voters that he had already done his part to overturn the President's actions.
"We won this fight in the House," Boehner said, as he directly called out two GOP Senators who have rallied rank-and-file Republicans against the Speaker on several issues.
"It's time for Senator Cruz and Senator Sessions, and Senate Republicans and Senate Democrats, to stand with the American people and block the President's actions," Boehner said.
It's not clear what Republicans would do next, as Democrats and the President say any plan that has immigration restrictions will be blocked before it can get to the White House.