User77: My parents grew up very poor. In our house, nothing took priority over our education. My parents were convinced it was our path to a better life. They were right. I always worked very hard at my school work. I didn't land my good job by accident. I wouldn't say we've poured lots of money into pre-college education, but we have definitely made it a priority. Many parents of all income levels think nothing of driving their kids across town to be on a certain sports team, but they won't take their kids to the library. I know parents who can tell you everything about their children's coach, but don't know who their math teacher is.
Cere: Wealthy people "do" certain things and interact with their children in certain ways that develop critical thinking skills. Do as they do to the best of your ability (you might not be able to treat your kids to a European vacation, but there is plenty to see and do within a driveable/campable distance), and your children will respond with enthusiasm and inquisitiveness. Games, conversation, mentoring, physical sports, rest, good nutrition, good books can all be acquired and achieved if you just do your best to make whatever you have work for your children. Your children will know how hard you work to make their world good, and they will respect you and learn from it. The most important component is love. Take anger out of your home. Love your children. Unconditionally.