Iraq’s top Shiite cleric ratcheted up the pressure Friday on lawmakers to agree on a prime minister before the newly elected parliament meets next week, trying to avert months of wrangling in the face of a Sunni insurgent blitz over huge tracts in the country’s north and west.
The stunning offensive has been spearheaded by the al-Qaida breakaway group, the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant. The onslaught has triggered the worst crisis in Iraq since the U.S. withdrawal at the end of 2011 and sapped support for Shiite Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki.
Many of al-Maliki’s former allies, and even key patron Iran, have begun exploring alternatives to replace him. But al-Maliki, who has governed the country since 2006, has proven to be a savvy and hard-nosed politician, and so far he has shown no willingness to step aside.
Al-Maliki can claim to have a mandate. He won the most votes in April elections, and his State of Law bloc won the most seats by far. But he failed to gain the majority needed to govern alone, leaving him in need of allies to retain his post.
That has set the stage for what could be months of arduous coalition negotiations. After 2010 elections, it took Iraqi politicians nine months to agree on a new prime minister. Now, unlike four years ago, the territorial cohesion of Iraq is at stake.
Seizing on the sense of urgency, Iraq’s most powerful Shiite cleric, Grand Ayatollah Ali al-Sistani, called on the country’s politicians to agree on the next prime minister, parliament speaker and president by the time the new legislature meets on Tuesday, a cleric who represents him told worshippers in a sermon Friday in the holy city of Karbala.
Doing so would be a “prelude to the political solution that everyone seeks at the present,” said the cleric, Abdul-Mahdi al-Karbalaie.
The reclusive al-Sistani, the most revered figure among Iraqi Shiites, rarely appears or speaks in public, instead delivering messages through other clerics or, less frequently, issuing edicts.
In Washington, the Obama administration backed al-Sistani’s call for Iraqi leaders to agree on a new government “without delay.”
“It’s my understanding he was calling for a process that’s in line with the constitution, just to do it very quickly,” State Department spokeswoman Marie Harf told reporters. “Which we certainly agree with because we think the situation is so serious that they need to move with urgency.”
Still, the probability that Iraq’s deeply divided political class can mend its differences in the span of days is unlikely.
The United States and other world powers have pressed al-Maliki to reach out to the country’s Sunni and Kurdish minorities and have called for a more inclusive government that can address longstanding grievances. Al-Maliki has widely been accused of monopolizing power and alienating Sunnis, and his failure to promote national reconciliation has been blamed for fueling Sunni anger.
The Islamic State has taken advantage of Sunni discontent to fuel its rise. The group’s stunning gains also were made possible in part because Iraqi security forces melted away in the face of the onslaught.
The United States has already deployed 180 of 300 troops promised by President Barack Obama to assist and advise Iraqi troops. The U.S. also has started flying armed Predator drones over Baghdad to protect U.S. interests in the Iraqi capital, a Pentagon official said.