While Republicans said they supported the increase in spending for the military, Democrats focused their support on extra funding for non-defense programs.
"One thing we certainly have bipartisan agreement on is spending," said Sen. Marco Rubio (R-FL), who also voted against the deal.
Here are the 28 Senators who voted against the deal - 23 Republicans and 5 Democrats:
Along with setting spending levels in 2020 and 2021, the agreement suspends the debt limit for two years.
Outside budget groups say it will add even more to the deficit - the Committee for a Responsible Federal Budget estimates that President Trump will add $4.1 trillion to the debt in his first three years in office.
With approval of this plan, the House and Senate will not have any legislative votes until the week after Labor Day.