The analysis of these numerous studies suggests that moderate alcohol consumption (defined below) helps to protect against heart disease by:
- Raising HDL "good" cholesterol
- Increasing apolipoprotein A1, a protein that has a specific role in lipid (fat) metabolism and is a major component of HDL "good" cholesterol
- Decreasing fibrinogen, a soluble plasma glycoprotein that is a part of blood clot formation
- Lowering blood pressure
- Reducing plaque accumulation in the arteries
- Decreasing the clumping of platelets and the formation of blood clots
However, these studies did not show any relationship between moderate alcohol intake and total cholesterol level or LDL "bad" cholesterol. And while some studies associated alcohol intake with increased triglycerides, the most recent analysis of moderate alcohol intake in healthy adults showed no such relationship.
What's the Definition of "Moderate" Alcohol Consumption?
A moderate alcohol intake is defined as up to 1 drink per day for women and up to 2 drinks per day for men. One drink contains 0.6 fluid ounces of alcohol and is defined as:
- 12 fl. oz. of regular beer (5% alcohol)
- 4-5 fl. oz. of wine (12% alcohol)
- 1.5 fl. oz. of 80-proof distilled spirits (40% alcohol)
- 1 fl. oz. of 100-proof distilled spirits (50% alcohol)
Are Certain Types of Alcohol Better Than Others?
While a few research studies suggest that wine maybe more beneficial than beer or spirits in the prevention of heart disease, most studies do not support an association between type of alcoholic beverage and the prevention of heart disease.
Drinking wine for its antioxidant content to prevent heart disease is an unproven strategy. It still remains unclear whether red wine offers any heart-protecting advantage over white wine or other types of alcoholic beverages.
Health Risks of Drinking Too Much
While moderate drinking may have some health benefits, heavy or binge drinking can have a toxic effect on your health and your heart.
Heavy drinking is the consumption of more than 3 drinks on any day or more than 7 drinks per week for women and more than 4 drinks on any day or more than 14 drinks per week for men. Heavy drinking in particular can damage the heart and lead to high blood pressure, alcoholic cardiomyopathy (enlarged and weakened heart), congestive heart failure, and stroke.
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Heavy drinking puts more fat into the circulation in your body, raising your triglyceride level. It's also associated with an increased risk of cirrhosis of the liver, cancer of the gastrointestinal tract and colon, breast cancer, violence, drowning, and injuries from falls and motor vehicle crashes.
Binge drinking is the consumption within 2 hours of 4 or more drinks for women and 5 or more drinks for men. Binge drinking is also associated with a wide range of other health and social problems, such as sexually transmitted disease, unintended pregnancy, and violent crimes.
Who Should NOT Drink
According to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the following people should not drink alcohol:
Adults who cannot restrict their alcohol drinking to moderate levels, as listed above Anyone who is younger than the legal drinking age Women who are pregnant or may become pregnant Anyone taking a medication (prescription or over-the counter) that can interact with alcohol. Talk to your doctor or pharmacist about the medications you take and alcohol consumption Individuals with certain medical conditions such as liver disease, hypertriglyceridemia, and pancreatitis. Talk to your doctor regarding your health history and alcohol consumption Individuals who plan to drive, operate machinery or take part in other activities that require attention, skill, or coordination or in situations where impaired judgment could cause injury or death, such as swimming
Research indicates that a moderate alcohol intake has been associated with a decreased risk for certain cardiovascular diseases, particularly coronary heart disease. However, health professionals and dietary guidelines suggest that if you don't drink, don't start.
There are other, healthier ways to reduce your risk of heart disease like not smoking, eating right, getting regular exercise and maintaining a healthy weight. To find out if a moderate alcohol intake is appropriate for you, talk to your doctor about your consumption of alcohol, medical history, and any medications you use.
American Heart Association. "Alcohol, Wine and Cardiovascular Disease," accessed March 2011. www.americanheart.org.
Brien SE, Ronksley PE, Turner BJ, Mukamal KJ, Ghali WA, "Effect of alcohol consumption on biological markers associated with risk of coronary heart disease: systematic review and meta-analysis of interventional studies," British Medical Journal 2011; 342:d636. doi: 10.1136/bmj.d636.
Rimm EB, Williams P, Fosher K, Criqui M, Stampfer MJ, "Moderate alcohol intake and lower risk of coronary heart disease: meta-analysis of effect on lipids and haemostatic factor," British Medical Journal 1999; 319:1523-8.
United States Department of Agriculture Center for Nutrition and Policy Information. "2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans," accessed March 2011. www.cnpp.usda.gov.
This article was originally published on SparkPeople.
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