When an accused teenage gunman opened fire on his former classmates last week, he wore a maroon polo shirt emblazoned with the logo of the school from which he'd been expelled -- Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School.
The name Stoneman Douglas has become synonymous with the tragedy that ended with 17 people dead and the accused killer, 19-year-old Nikolas Cruz, charged with murdering them. But who was Marjory Stoneman Douglas?
Douglas, who died in 1998 at the age of 108, was a journalist and advocate of the women’s suffrage movement. She may be most well-known, however, for her efforts to save the Florida Everglades, which are not far from the school bearing her name.
Below are some of the details from Douglas’ remarkable life.
- Marjory Stoneman, who was born in 1890 in Minneapolis, showed a tendency for excellence early on. According to the National Park Service, she graduated with a 4.0 GPA from Wellesley College, where she was elected "class orator."
- Following a brief marriage to a man named Kenneth Douglas, she moved to Florida in 1915 to reunite with her father, Frank Stoneman, who she had not seen since she was a child. The first publisher of the Miami Herald, Stoneman hired his daughter as a society columnist.
- Moving through various duties at the Herald, Douglas established herself as a noteworthy writer, the National Park Service said. It was as a journalist that she embraced activism, fighting for feminism, racial justice and conservation of nature.
- It was around 1917 that Douglas took on a passionate role in advocating for the preservation of the Everglades. NPR reported that most people at the time considered the Everglades "a worthless swamp," but Douglas disagreed.
- "We have all these natural beauties and resources," Douglas said in a 1981 NPR interview, when she was 91 years old. "Among all the states, there isn't another state like it. And our great problem is to keep them as they are in spite of the tremendous increase of population of people who don't necessarily understand the nature of Florida."
- Douglas in 1947 published her book, "The Everglades: River of Grass," described by the National Park Service as the "definitive description of the natural treasure she fought so hard to protect." Later that year, she was an honored guest when President Harry Truman dedicated the Everglades National Park, according to the National Wildlife Federation.
- In the 1950s, Douglas railed against a major project of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, a system of canals, levees, dams and pumping stations designed to protect marshland -- now used for agriculture and real estate -- from flooding. The National Park Service credits Douglas with fighting the destruction of the wetlands long before scientists realized the effects it would have on Florida's ecosystem.
- In 1969, she founded the nonprofit Friends of the Everglades, which continues to fight for the wetlands today.
- Co-author John Rothchild, in the introduction to Douglas' autobiography, described watching her speak at a 1973 public meeting regarding a Corps of Engineers permit: "When she spoke, everybody stopped slapping (mosquitoes) and more or less came to order. She reminded us all of our responsibility to nature and I don't remember what else. Her voice had the sobering effect of a one-room schoolmarm's. The tone itself seemed to tame the rowdiest of the local stone crabbers, plus the developers and the lawyers on both sides. I wonder if it didn't also intimidate the mosquitoes. The request for a Corps of Engineers permit was eventually turned down. This was no surprise to those of us who'd heard her speak."
- Douglas was inducted into the National Wildlife Federation's Conservation Hall of Fame in 1999, and into the National Women's Hall of Fame a year later.
- When discussing the issue of mankind and humans' attitude toward nature, Douglas pulled no punches. "I'll tell you, the whole thing is an enormous battle between man's intelligence and his stupidity," she told NPR. "And I'm not at all sure that stupidity isn't going to win out in the long run."
- She was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian honor, by President Bill Clinton in 1993. She later donated the medal to Wellesley College.
- On the same day she received the medal from President Clinton, Douglas was invited to witness the signing of the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act, commonly called the Brady Bill, according to the Daily Beast. The bill, named for Jim Brady, the press secretary critically injured during the 1981 attempted assassination of President Ronald Reagan, established a federal background check for those wanting to purchase a firearm.
Cruz passed a background check in February 2017 when he legally bought the assault rifle used in last week’s massacre at Stoneman Douglas.